Faculty and students in the Department of History and Philosophy participate in active academic research. Each history major student conducts research and writes a paper to meet their degree requirement and faculty are actively engaged in research. Find more information about each faculty's current research, books, articles, and presentations below.
Terrie Dopp Aamodt
Current Research: American religious women; barnstorming and improvisation.
(Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 2002).
A recurring theme for American mythmakers, particularly in times of crisis or national self-doubt, has been the Apocalypse. Nowhere is this pattern more evident than in cultural responses to the Civil War. Although apocalyptic interpretations of the war have most often been associated with the North, a significant body of apocalyptic literature appeared in the South during the Civil War. Furthermore, themes of the end of the world pervade the songs and oral history of southern slaves. Apocalyptic interpretations were not only an argumentative tool of the pulpit and religious tracts, but they also pervaded popular culture in poetic language, verbal images, and visual iconography, becoming an aesthetic preoccupation as well as a rhetorical strategy.
All participants envisioned a radically different world made by the war. To Unionists it promised the purgation of the last great sin–slavery–that kept the United States from fulfilling its millennial promise. To Confederates it held out the hope of removing the corruption that had infiltrated the national government since the Constitutional Convention adjourned. To slaves it meant forsaking the bondage of their world in favor of the freedom they would experience as new Children of Israel. After the Civil War, however, liberal Protestants, fundamentalists, and artists formed increasingly divergent expectations about the end of the world.
(College Place, WA: Walla Walla College, 1992).
The history of Walla Walla College was written as part of Walla Walla College's centennial celebration. The volume includes chronological chapters on the college's struggling early years, its growth into an accredited college, the World War II years and postwar expansion, the Baby Boom years, and the 1980s. It also includes topical chapters on educational philosophy, vocational education, the School of Theology, the School of Engineering, social life and recreation, and service. It is based on research conducted at the Walla Walla College archives, Washington State University, The University of Idaho, Whitman College, and the Archives of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. It also includes information from more more than 70 taped oral history interviews.
Terrie Dopp Aamodt, Editor.
(College Place, WA: Walla Walla College 1999).
This book is an anthology of essays, stories, and poems about the spiritual journeys of 35 students, faculty, staff, and alumni of Walla Walla College. The college published and distributed 4000 copies in 1999, including 1000 copies distributed at the first-ever convention of all NAD K-12 teachers, held in Dallas, Texas, in 2000.
Articles and Book Chapters:
Ellen Harmon White: American Prophet, co-edited with Ronald L. Numbers and Gary Land. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014 (refereed publication).
“Speaker” (chapter in Ellen White: American Prophet [refereed publication]).
“Isaac Van Horn” and “Walla Walla College” in the Ellen White Encyclopedia. Hagerstown: Review and Herald Pub. Assn., 2013 (refereed publication).
“Out of Thee, O England, Will a Bright Star Arise’: Mother Ann Lee and the English Origins of the Shakers.” In The Development of Pluralism in Modern Britain and France. Vol. 1 of Studies in the History of Religious and Political Pluralism, edited by Richard Bonney and D. J. B. Trim. Oxford: Peter Lang, 2007 (refereed publication).
“Cracking a Chink in Jim Crow: Satchel Paige and the Integration of Baseball,” in Satchel Paige and Company: Essays on the Kansas City Monarchs, Their Greatest Star and the Negro Leagues, edited by Leslie A. Heaphy. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2007 (refereed publication).
“Religion,” in American History Through Literature 1820-1870, 965-971. 3 vols. edited by Janet Gabler-Hover and Robert Sattelmeyer. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2006 (refereed publication).
“Jane Wardley.” The New Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004 (refereed publication).
“The Impossible Dream,” in Growing Up with Baseball, edited by Gary Land. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004.
“Escape from ‘Slow Time’: Sculpture and Tactile Temporality in Keats’s Later Poems.” Topic: A Journal of the Liberal Arts, 46 (Spring 1996), 45-56.
“Face Values: Liberal Education’s Imperative.” Adventist Education, May 1996, 10-14.
“The Unfortunate Incident.” Contemporary Easter Drama, performed multiple times 1985-1988.
Academic Presentations and Conference Papers:
“Donald Blake and the Integration of Walla Walla College.” Paper presented at the Donald Blake Center Dedication. Walla Walla University. April, 2016.
“‘I Have Seen a Better Land’: Confessions of an Ellen White Biographer.” Paper presented at the Walter C. Utt Lecture. Pacific Union College. April, 2016.
“Walla Walla College’s Jackie Robinson.” Paper presented at the 2016 Inaugural Lecture of the Percy and John Christian Civil Rights Conference Center. Pacific Union College. April, 2016.
“A Story of a Particular Kind: Making History.” Paper presented at the Phi Alpha Theta Induction Ceremony Lecture. Pacific Union College. April, 2016.
“Ellen White and the Public: Then and Now.” Paper presented at the Michiana Adventist Forum. Andrews University. October, 2014.
“Ellen White and the Public.” Paper presented at the Association of Adventist Forums San Diego Chapter. September, 2014.
“American Prophet,” “How Shall We Talk to Our Children About Ellen White?” “Ellen White and Her Audiences,” Papers presented at the Association of Adventist Forums. Orlando FL Chapter. July, 2014.
“Ellen Harmon White: American Prophet.” Paper presented at the Association of Adventist Forums Walla Walla Chapter. May, 2014.
“Going to the Sources for Adventist History.” Paper presented at the Association of SDA Librarians. Walla Walla University. June, 2013.
Slave Worship: Revolution in Religion.” Paper presented at the National Association of African-American Studies. Baton Rouge, LA. February, 2013.
“Hearing Ellen White: A Woman Finds a Public Voice,” (chapter presentation; respondent Joan Hedrick), Ellen White Conference. Portland, Maine. October, 2009.
“Religion and Violence in the Civil War.” Paper presented at the Institute on Bible, Church, and Culture. Portland, Oregon. February, 2009.
“Three Cups of Tea: A Karakoram Odyssey.” Walla Walla Public Library Book Lecture/March of Peace event (presented with Larry Aamodt). March, 2008.
“Prison Ball.” Paper presented at the Society for American Baseball Research. Seattle. June, 2006.
“Satchel Paige and the Integration of Baseball.” Paper presented at the Negro Leagues Conference on the Centennial of Satchel Paige’s Birth. Kansas City. July, 2006.
“Heavenly Spaces, Home(ly) Spheres: Abandon, Control, and Gender in Shaker Gift Drawings.” Paper presented at the American Studies Association. Washington, D. C. November, 2005.
“A Space Between Heaven and Earth: Shaker Gift Drawings and the Shaker Aesthetic,” (revision and expansion of WW Art Club presentation), Hawaii International Conference on the Arts and Humanities. Honolulu. January, 2004.
“The ‘Bearded Beauties’: Baseball, Business, and Entertainment During the Depression.” Paper presented at the Society for American Baseball Research. Denver. July, 2003.
“Adventists, Beasts, and America: A Review of Douglas Morgan’s Book.” Paper presented at the Adventist Society for Religious Studies. Denver, Colorado. November, 2001.
“Proof Texts: Spiritual Authenticity and the Public Life of Ellen Harmon White,” conference paper, The Association of Seventh-day Adventist Historians triennial meeting. Andrews University. April, 2001.
“Wave After Wave of Glory: Charismatic Aspects of Ellen White’s Early Ministry,” conference paper, The Association of Adventist Women. Sacramento. October, 2000.
“When Topsy Wore Blackface.” Paper presented at the Society for American Music. Charleston, South Carolina. March, 2000.
“Divine Institution or Moral Embarrassment? Antebellum Debates on Slavery and Biblical Interpretation.” Paper presented at the Association of SDA Historians Triennial Meeting. Portland, Oregon. April, 1998.
“What Doth the Lord Require of Adventism? Theologians and Fundamentalists in the 1930s.” Paper presented at the Association of West Coast Adventist Historians, Pacific Union College. April, 1997.
Montgomery Buell, Editor.
(Vancouver, BC: North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission, 2007).
Articles and Book Chapters:
“Alaska,” in Xanthippe Augerot, ed., Atlas of Pacific Salmon: The First Map-Based Status Assessment of Salmon in the North Pacific. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005), 23, 27-29.
Academic Presentations and Conference Papers:
“’Saving fish so we can catch ‘em’: Environmental Legislation for Fish Stock Exploitation.” Paper presented at the American Society of Environmental History. Seattle. April 8, 2016.
“’Keep Out the Outsiders’: Fishing and the Formation of a Regional Community.” Paper presented at the Pacific Northwest History Conference. Portland. May, 2006.
“Red-Baiting and Priest-Bashing: The Great Nushagak Strike of 1951.” Paper presented at the American Historical Association. Seattle. January, 2005.
“Riding With Don Quixote: A Teacher’s Encounter with Secondary History Standards in Washington State.” Paper presented at the Association of Seventh-day Adventist Historians. Angwin, CA. March, 2004.
“How International Environmental Treaties Affect Anglers in the Pacific Northwest.” Paper presented at the Tri-State Steelheader’s Association annual meeting. Walla Walla, WA. December, 2002.
“Frank Tannenbaum’s Crime: The I.W.W. and the Churches in New York City.” Paper presented at the Great Lakes History Conference, Grand Valley State University. Grand Rapids, MI. October, 1996.
“‘Incapacitated To Do Business, And Insane’: Ezekiel Hale and the Threat of Millerism.” Paper presented at the Society for Historians of the Early American Republic, Vanderbilt University. Nashville, TN. July, 1996.
Current Research: The Common People and Religious Toleration in Restoration England.
The following excerpt comes from the University of Toronto Press Catalogue.
Desiderius Erasmus’ humanist works were influential throughout Europe, in various areas of thought including theology, education, philology, and political theory. Exploiting Erasmus examines the legacy of Erasmus in England from the mid-sixteenth century to the overthrow of James II in 1688 and studies the various ways in which his works were received, manipulated, and used in religious controversies that threatened both church and state.
In viewing movements and events such as the rise of anti-Calvinism, the religious politics leading to the English civil war, and the emergence of the Latitudinarians during the Restoration, Gregory Dodds provides a fascinating account not only of the reception and effects of Erasmus’ works, but also of the early history of English Protestantism. Exploiting Erasmus offers a critical new angle for rethinking the theology and rhetoric of the time. It is a remarkable study of Erasmus’ influence on issues of conformity, tolerance, war, and peace.
Articles and Book Chapters:
"An Accidental Historian: Erasmus and the English History of the Reformation." Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture. Cambridge University Press. June 2013.
"'Betwixt Heaven and Hell': Religious Toleration and the Reception of Erasmus in Restoration England," in Karl Enenkel, ed., Intersections: The Reception of Erasmus in the Early Modern Period. Brill, 2013.
"Joseph Hall, Thomas Fuller, and the Erasmian Via Media in Early Stuart England," in Steven Ryle, ed., Erasmus and the Republic of Letters. London: Brepols, 2013.
"Remembering the Wars of Religion: Huguenots and the Problem of Religious Toleration in Restoration England," in David Trim, ed., Huguenots in history and memory: essays in honour and memory of Walter Utt. Brill, 2011.
"Erasmus' Paraphrases, anti-Calvinism, and the seventeenth century debate about the English Reformation." Erasmus of Rotterdam Society Yearbook, Vol. 27 (2007), 59-69.
“‘Puritane Punke’: Rewriting Erasmus in Early Seventeenth-Century England,” in Erasmus of Rotterdam Society Yearbook. Vol. 26 (2006), 43-58.
Academic Presentations and Conference Papers:
“'Idoliz’d Model of a Commonwealth’: Politics and Thomas More’s Utopia in Restoration England.” Paper presented at Renaissance Society of America conference. Boston. April, 2016.
“’Vulgar passions will to tumult grow’: National Security and the Common People in Restoration England.” Paper presented at the Renaissance Society of America conference. Berlin, Germany. March, 2015.
“Making evidence for anti-Catholic histories in early modern England.” Paper presented at the Reformation Studies Colloquium, Cambridge University. Cambridge, UK. September, 2014.
“‘Cabals of Zeal:’ Popularity, Social Anxiety, and Vulgar Rhetoric in Restoration England.” Paper presented at Renaissance Society of America conference in New York. March, 2014.
“Erasmus as Historian.” Paper presented at Renaissance Society of America conference in Washington, D.C. March, 2012.
“Erasmianism, Roger L’Estrange, and the defense of intolerance.” Paper presented at the conference Intersections: Around Erasmus. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. January, 2011.
“Peace, Toleration, and the Problem of Security in Restoration England.” Paper presented at Conference on Faith and History: The Search for Peace, Justice, and Equality. George Fox University. October, 2010.
“Competing Models of Religious Toleration.” Paper presented at Renaissance Society of America conference in Venice, Italy. April, 2010.
“Huguenots and the Fall of James II.” Paper presented at the Association of Seventh-day Adventist Historians conference in Washington, D.C. March, 2010.
“Erasmus, partisanship and civility.” Inaugural lecture for the Nylander Memorial Humanities Speaker Series. Ellensburg, WA. November, 2009.
“Lancelot Andrewes and the Legacy of English Humanism at the Early Stuart Court.” Paper given at Renaissance Society of America conference. Los Angeles, CA. April, 2009.
“Talking Nice: Erasmus and Civility.” Inquiring Minds presentation for Humanities Washington. Speakers’ Bureau 2008-2009 and 2009-2010.
“Thomas More, Censorship, and the English Civil War.” Invited paper given at the Triennial International Thomas More Conference: Thomas More, Man of Letters. Massachusetts Center for Renaissance Studies at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. August, 2007.
“Moderate Calvinists and Erasmus in Early Stuart England.” Paper given at the Pacific Coast Conference of British Studies. Puget Sound University, WA. April, 2007.
“Erasmus and anti-Calvinist Polemic in Seventeenth Century England.” Paper given at Renaissance Society of America conference. Miami, FL. March, 2007.
“Joseph Hall, Thomas Fuller, and the Erasmian via media.” Paper given at Erasmus and the Republic of Letters—a conference marking the centenary of the publication of the first volume of P.S. Allen’s edition of the letters of Erasmus. Corpus Christi College, Oxford University. September, 2006.
“Framing the Paraphrases: Decatholicizing Erasmus in Reformation England.” Paper given at Renaissance Society of America conference. San Francisco, CA. March, 2006.
“‘Puritan Punk:’ Rewriting Erasmus in Early Seventeenth Century England.” Paper given at the joint conference of the Renaissance Society of America and the U.K. Society for Renaissance Studies. Cambridge University, UK. April, 2005.
“The Humanist Response to the Turkish Threat.” Paper presented at Claremont Early Modern Studies Conference. Claremont, CA. Spring, 2002.
“Erasmus and Islam.” Paper presented at Association of Western Adventist Historians conference. Spring 2002.
“Archbishop Ussher and the Politics of History.” Paper presented at the Association of Adventist Historians conference held at Andrews University. Berrien Springs, MI. Spring 2001.
Current Areas of Research and Presentation: The relevance of the moral theories of Aristotle, Epicurus, and Epictetus for contemporary ethical discourse. The influence of ancient Greek and Roman thinkers upon the formation of Christian doctrine.
Current Research: Constitutional Law regarding Individual Rights, and Criminal Race Theory
Articles and book chapters:
“Frederick Douglass and the Dialectic of Knowledge.” Syndicate. Vol. 2.4 (2015), 119-23.
“From Logos to Sarx: Black Philosophy and the Philosophy of Religion.” The Black Scholar. Vol. 43.4 (2013), 94-100.
“Epistemic Addiction: Reading ‘Sonny’s Blues’ with Levinas, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche.” Journal of Speculative Philosophy. Vol. 26.3 (2012), 554-571.
“From Epistemology to Ethics: Theoretical and Practical Reason in Kant and Douglass.” Journal of Religious Ethics. Vol. 40.4 (2012), 603-628.
“German Chocolate: Why Philosophy is So Personal,” in Tina Fernandes Botts, ed., Philosophy and the Mixed Race Experience. Lexington Books, 2016.
“Morality, Art, and the Self: Existentialism in Frederick Douglass and Søren Kierkegaard,” in Melvin Hill, ed., Existentialist Thought in African-American Literature Before 1940. Lexington Books, 2016.
“Two Forms of Transcendence: Justice and the Problem of Knowledge,” in George Yancy and Janine Jones, eds., Pursuing Trayvon Martin: Historical Contexts and Contemporary Manifestations of Racial Dynamics. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2012.
“From Psychology to Resistance: Derrick Bell and American Legal Realism,” forthcoming in Timothy J. Golden, ed., Racism and Resistance: Essays on Derrick Bell. SUNY Press, Under Contract.
“Liberalism, Christendom, and Narrative: Paradox and Indirect Communication in Derrick Bell and Søren Kierkegaard,” forthcoming in Timothy J Golden, ed., Racism and Resistance: Essays on Derrick Bell. SUNY Press, Under Contract.
“Individual Liberty and Constitutional Interpretation in the Thought of Frederick Douglass,” forthcoming in Timothy J. Golden, ed., God, Justice, and The Good: The Religious, Moral, and Political Thought of Frederick Douglass. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Under Contract.
Academic Presentations and Conference Papers:
“Religious Freedom and Civil Rights.” Lecture given at the Northwest Religious Liberty Association. Ridgefield, WA. August, 2016.
“Let us make god: Onto-theology and the Political.” Lecture given at the Annual Ethics Lecture, Villanova University. Philadelphia, PA. October, 2014.
“From Imago Dei to Imago Hominis: A Moral Objection to Onto-theology.” Paper presented at the Ethics Lunch Series, Villanova University. October, 2014.
“Cruel Irony: Legally Securing the Christian Dimension of Whiteness as Property.” Paper presented at the Critical Race Studies Symposium, UCLA School of Law. October, 2014.
“Beyond Naturalized Jurisprudence: Racial Realism as Normativity.” Paper presented at the Symposium on Derrick Bell, University of Pittsburgh School of Law. March, 2014.
“Kierkegaard and Kant on Repetition.” Paper presented at the Kierkegaard and the Present Age Conference, Brigham Young University. November, 2013.
“Epistemic Addiction and Epistemic Injustice: ‘The Conscience of the Court’ as Virtuous Hearing and Eschatology.” Paper presented at the American Society for Aesthetics, 71st Annual Meeting. San Diego, CA. October, 2013.
“Out of One Blood: The Role of Art in Interreligious Dialogue.” Paper presented at the North American Levinas Society, Duquesne University. Pittsburgh, PA. July, 2013.
“Kierkegaard’s Critique of Liberalism in Two Ages.” Paper presented at the International Kierkegaard Conference, Saint Olaf College. Northfield, MN. June, 2013.
“Making the Crooked Places Straight: Liberation Theology in Luke 3 and in Defensoir Pacis.” Paper presented at the Bible and Justice Conference, Saint Ambrose University. Davenport, IA. June, 2013.
“Immortality and Infinity: Subjectivity in Kant and Levinas.” Paper presented at the Anna Julia Cooper Fellow, Pennsylvania State University. February, 2013.
“Re-thinking Foundationalism: A Reading of Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy.” Paper presented at the Society of Adventist Philosophers, DePaul University. November, 2012
“Epistemic Addiction and Epistemic Injustice: Violence and Politics in Levinas.” Paper presented at the Levinas Research Seminar, University of Nevada. Reno, NV. July, 2012.
“Subjectivity in Kierkegaard and Douglass.” Paper presented at the Sixth International Kierkegaard Conference. Hong Kierkegaard Library, Saint Olaf College. June, 2010.
“The Self-Destruction of Modern Science: Husserl, Derrida, and Post-Modern Theology.” Paper presented at the American Academy of Religion, Pacific Regional Meeting. May, 2008.
“Nominal God or Noumenal Reality: A Critique of John Hick’s Pluralistic Hypothesis.” Paper presented at the Ida B. Wells Philosophical Association, University of Memphis. October, 2008
Terrell D. Gottschall
(Naval Institute Press, 2003).
This biography--the first in English--of the prominent pre-World War I German naval officer Otto von Diederichs examines the evolution of the Imperial German Navy and Diederichs's participation in the Navy's strategic and operational development. When he secured his naval appointment in 1867, the Prussian Navy was little more than a coastal-defense force, but during the course of his naval service, the fleet evolved into the Imperial German Navy whose High Seas Fleet played a major role in the world war.
Known as an expert troubleshooter, Diederichs served variously as a training officer, commander of a gunboat during the Franco-German War of 1870-1871, first officer aboard a cruiser in East Asian waters, and a naval educator at the Navy's undergraduate and postgraduate academic institutions. His most famous achievement, the 1897 seizure of Kiao-chou Bay as Germany's first overseas naval base, and his most controversial act, an 1898 confrontation with Rear Admiral George Dewey at Manila Bay, are thoroughly explored in the book. German naval historian Terrell Gottschall also takes a careful look at the strategic dispute between Diederichs and Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz that led to Diederichs's early retirement. Intended for both general and scholarly readers, the book fills a gap in German naval history prior to the emergence of Tirpitz and his policies that led Germany into World War I.
Northern Mariner, July 2003
" The author has deftly captured a bygone era by reviving a man who has stood too long in the shadows."
“’Nine Months by Sand and Sea’: The Naval Odyssey of Helmut von Mücke, 1914-1915.” The International Journal of Maritime History. Vol. 27 (2015) 484-505.
“’A Puritan Sunday’: Base Ball and Blue Laws in Walla Walla, Washington.” Base Ball: A Journal of the Early Game. Vol. 7 (2013): 154-169.
“Let the Law Take its Course’: Vigilante Justice in Walla Walla, 1891.” Columbia. Vol. 26 (2012): 20-27.
“’Two-Bit Baseball’: Walla Walla and the Pacific Interstate League, 1891.” Base Ball: A Journal of the Early Game. Vol. 3 (2009): 52-67.
“’Go for Them with a Mailed Fist’: Otto von Diederichs and the Seizure of Kiao-chou, 1897.” International Journal of Maritime History. Vol. 15 (2003), 1-25.
“Officer Training in the Prussian Navy: The Professionalization of the Naval Officer Corps in the 1860s.” International Journal of Naval History. Vol. 1 (2001). (Online journal: www.ijnhonline.org).
“The Kaiser’s Navy Surveys Puget Sound.” Columbia. Vol. 13 (1999): 38-43.
Academic Presentations and Conference Papers:
“Pioneer ‘Base Ball’ in the Walla Walla Valley.” Paper presented at the Walla Walla Valley Historical Society. Walla Walla, WA. October, 2007.
“Officer Training in the Prussian Navy: The Professionalization of the Naval Officer Corps in the 1860s.” Paper presented to the Naval History Symposium, U. S. Naval Academy. Annapolis, MD. September, 2001. (Accepted but not presented because of 9/11.)
“Admiralstab vs. Reichsmarineamt: Intra-service Rivalry in the Imperial German Navy, 1899-1902.” Paper presented at the Naval History Symposium, U. S. Naval Academy. Annapolis, MD. September, 1997.
“Diederichs and Dewey at Manila Bay: The ‘Cold War’ in the Philippines, 1898.” Paper presented at the Association of Western Adventist Historians. College Place, WA. April, 1994.
“Admiral Otto von Diederichs and the Seizure of Kiao-chou, November 1897.” Paper presented at the Naval History Symposium. Annapolis, MD. September, 1991.
“The Projection of German Sea Power in East Asia: the Voyage of SMS Luise, 1878-1880.” Paper presented at the Association of Western Adventist Historians. College Place, WA. April, 1990.
“‘I am here, Sir, by the order of the Kaiser’: A Profile of Admiral Otto von Diederichs.” Paper presented at the Association of Western Adventist Historians. La Sierra, CA. May, 1988.
“‘The Trident is in our Fist’: German Naval Aspirations in the Caribbean during the Spanish-American War.” Paper presented at the Association of Western Adventist Historians. College Place, WA. April, 1987.
“The Perils of Irene: German-American Naval Confrontation in the Philippines, 1898.” Paper presented at the Great Lakes Historical Conference. Grand Rapids, MI. April, 1986.
“‘A Place in the Sun’”: German Diplomatic and Naval Aspirations in the Spanish-American War, 1898.” Paper presented at the Great Lakes Historical Conference. Grand Rapids, MI. April, 1984.
“Admiral Otto von Diederichs and the German Cruiser Squadron in East Asia, 1897- 1899.” Paper presented at the Great Lakes Historical Conference. Grand Rapids, MI. April, 1983.
Dissertation: Germany and the Spanish-American War, 1898: A Case Study in Navalism and Imperialism.