Introduced Species in or Near the Salish Sea:

Since human activity involves moving from place to place, we often purposely or accidentally introduce species to places where they did not exist before.  Many of these alien or xenobiotic species die out quickly.  Some of them, however, reproduce and grow aggressively and become Invasive.  Invasive species may cause ecological disruption by competition with native species and changing ecosystem structure, and may cause significant economic losses as well.

This web page serves as a list of many of the introduced marine species found in the Pacific Northwest, especially the Salish Sea.  I have tried to list as many introduced marine species from this area as possible.  Species of concern to the State of Washington are also listed, even though populations may not currently be established here.  Species for which there is a web page within the Salish Sea Invertebrates web site have a link to that page.

There are many other web sites dealing with introduced marine species in the Pacific Northwest.  Follow this link to many of these sites.
 
 
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Introduced Marine Species in the Pacific Northwest:

Note:  Some of these species are NATIVE here but have become invasive introduced species elsewhere.  These species are also included in this list but that fact is noted.
Families from my main list are included, with links.  However, if no species is listed under that family I have no record of any introduced species from that family in the Pacific Northwest.  
 
Jump directly to list of groups in phylum:
Phylum Annelida Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Urochordata Phylum Entoprocta
Phylum Platyhelminthes
Phylum Arthropoda Phylum Cnidaria Phylum Hemichordata Phylum Porifera
Phylum Brachiopoda Phylum Ctenophora
Phylum Mollusca
Phylum Sipuncula
Phylum Bryozoa Phylum Echinodermata Phylum Nemertea
Phylum Chaetognatha Phylum Echiura
Phylum Phoronida


Phylum Annelida

  1. Class Polychaeta
  2. Order Capitellida
  3. Family Arenicolidae

  4. Family Maldanidae

  5. Order Eunicida
  6. Family Eunicidae

  7. Order Phyllodocida
  8. Superfamily Aphroditidacea
  9. Family Aphroditidae

  10. Family Polynoidae
  11. Superfamily Nephtyidacea
  12. Family Nephtyidae

  13. Superfamily Nereidacea
  14. Family Nereidae
  15. Superfamily Phyllodocidacea
  16. Family Hesionidae

  17. Order Sabellida
  18. Family Sabellidae
  19. Family Serpulidae
  20. Serpula vermicularis
  21. Order Terebellida
  22. Family Terebellidae

Phylum Arthropoda
  1. Subphylum Crustacea
  2. Class Malacostraca
  3. Subclass Eumalacostraca
  4. Superorder Eucarida
  5. Order Decapoda
  6. Suborder Pleocyemata
  7. Infraorder Anomura
  8. Superfamily Galatheoidea
  9. Family Porcellanidae
  10. Petrocheles australiensis: The spiny porcelain crab, an Australian species listed as invasive by the WA State Dept of Fish and Wildlife
  11. Superfamily Paguroidea
  12. Family Diogenidae
  13. Paguristes frontalis: A S Australian hermit crab listed as an invasive species by the WA State Dept of Fish and Wildlife
  14. Family Lithodidae
  15. Family Paguridae
  16. Infraorder Astacidea
  17. Superfamily Nephropoidea
  18. Family Nephropidae
  19. Subfamily Nephropinae
  20. Homarus americanus
  21. Infraorder Brachyura
  22. Superfamily Cancroidea
  23. Family Atelecyclidae

  24. Family Cancridae
  25. Metacarcinus magister (Native here and important commercially in the Pacific Northwest but introduced elsewhere)

  26. Superfamily Grapsoidea
  27. Family Grapsidae
  28. Family Varunidae
  29. Cyclograpsus granulatus: Rough shore crab, a Hawaiian crab listed as an invasive species by the WA State Dept of Fish and Wildlife
  30. Eriocheir japonica
  31. Eriocheir sinensis
  32. Superfamily Majoidea
  33. Family Epialtidae (keyed under family Majidae)
  34. Family Majidae
  35. Family Oregoniidae (keyed under family Majidae)

  36. Superfamily Pinnotheroidea
  37. Family Pinnotheridae
  38. Superfamily Portunoidea
  39. Family Portunidae
  40. Carcinus maenas
  41. Superfamily Xanthoidea
  42. Family Xanthidae
  43. Rhithropanopeus harrisii

  44. Infraorder Caridea
  45. Family Alpheidae
  46. Alpheus euphrosyne:  The green snapping shrimp, an Indo-Pacific shrimp listed as an invasive species by the WA State Dept of Fish and Wildlife

  47. Family Crangonidae
  48. Family Hippolytidae
  49. Family Palaemonidae
  50. Palaemon macrodactylus
  51. Family Pandalidae
  52. Family Pasiphaeidae
  53. Infraorder Palinura
  54. Family Palinuridae
  55. Jasus edwardsii:  An Indo-Pacific 'Southern rock lobster' listed as the invasive species J. novaehollandiae by the WA State Dept of Fish and Wildlife

  56. Infraorder Thalassinidea
  57. Superfamily Callianassoidea
  58. Family Callianassidae
  59. Biffarius arenosus:  The sand ghost shrimp, a S Australian species listed as an invasive species by the WA State Dept of Fish and Wildlife

  60. Family Upogebiidae

  61. Superorder Peracarida
  62. Order Amphipoda
  63. Suborder Caprellidea
  64. Infraorder Caprellida
  65. Family Aeginellidae
  66. Family Caprellidae

  67. Suborder Gammaridea

  68. Family Ampithoidae


  69. Family Hyalidae
  70. Family Melitidae
  71. Gammarella berringar: A S Australian amphipod listed as an invasive species by the WA State Dept of Fish and Wildlife

  72. Family Talitridae

  73. Order Isopoda
  74. Suborder Anthuridea
  75. Family Anthuridae
  76. Mesanthura astelia: The patterned anthurid, an English species listed as invasive by the WA State Dept of Fish and Wildlife
  77. Suborder Epicaridea
  78. Family Bopyridae

  79. Suborder Flabellifera
  80. Family Cirolanidae
  81. Family Sphaeromatidae
  82. Sphaeroma quoyanum: A Tasmanian burrowing isopod listed as invasive by the WA State Dept of Fish and Wildlife

  83. Suborder Oniscoidea
  84. Family Ligiidae
  85. Suborder Valvifera
  86. Family Idoteidae
  87. Order Mysida
  88. Suborder Mysina
  89. Family Mysidae

  90. Class Maxillopoda
  91. Subclass Thecostraca
  92. Infraclass Cirripedia
  93. Superorder Rhizocephala
  94. Order Akentrogonida
  95. Family Clistosaccidae

  96. Order Kentrogonida
  97. Family Sacculinidae
  98. Loxothylacus panopaei:  Native here but introduced elsewhere
  99. Superorder Thoracica
  100. Order Pedunculata
  101. Suborder Scalpellomorpha
  102. Family Scalpellidae

  103. Suborder Lepadomorpha
  104. Family Lepadidae

  105. Order Sessilia
  106. Suborder Balanomorpha
  107. Superfamily Balanoidea
  108. Family Archaeobalanidae

  109. Family Balanidae
  110. Balanus glandula: Native here but introduced elsewhere
  111. Superfamily Tetraclitoidea
  112. Family Tetraclitidae
  113. Tetraclitella purpurascens:  The rosette barnacle, an Australian species listed as invasive by the WA State Dept of Fish and Wildlife


Phylum Brachiopoda
  1. Class Articulata
  2. Order Telotremata
  3. Family Laqueidae


Phylum Bryozoa (Ectoprocta)
  1. Class Gymnolaemata
  2. Order Cheilostomata
  3. Suborder Anasca
  4. Family Bugulidae

  5. Family Calloporidae

  6. Family Hincksinidae

  7. Family Membraniporidae
  8. Membranipora membranacea: Native here but introduced elsewhere
  9. Suborder Ascophora
  10. Family Schizoporellidae

  11. Order Ctenostomata
  12. Suborder Euctenostomata
  13. Family Alcyonidiidae

  14. Family Flustrellidridae

  15. Class Stenolaemata
  16. Order Cyclostomata
  17. Suborder Articulata
  18. Family Crisiidae

  19. Suborder Cerioporina
  20. Family Heteroporidae

  21. Suborder Rectangulata
  22. Family Lichenoporidae


Phylum Chordata
  1. Subphylum Urochordata
  2. Class Ascidiacea
  3. Order Enterogona
  4. Suborder Aplousobranchia
  5. Family Clavelinidae
  6. Aplidium californicum: Native here but introduced elsewhere
  7. Family Didemnidae
  8. Didemnum vexillum
  9. Diplosoma listerianum
  10. Order Phlebobranchia
  11. Family Ascidiidae
  12. Family Cionidae
  13. Ciona intestinalis
  14. Ciona savignyi
  15. Family Corellidae
  16. Corella inflata: Native here but introduced farther south
  17. Family Perophoridae
  18. Perophora japonica
  19. Order Stolidobranchia
  20. Family Molgulidae
  21. Molgula manhattensis
  22. Family Pyuridae
  23. Family Styelidae
  24. Botrylloides violaceus
  25. Botryllus schlosseri
  26. Styela clava


Phylum Cnidaria
  1. Class Anthozoa
  2. Subclass Alcyonaria (Octocorallia)
  3. Order Pennatulacea
  4. Suborder Subselliflorae
  5. Family Pennatulidae

  6. Subclass Ceriantipatharia
  7. Order Ceriantharia
  8. Family Cerianthidae

  9. Subclass Zoantharia
  10. Order Actniniaria
  11. Family Actiniidae
  12. Family Actinostolidae
  13. Family Metridiidae
  14. Order Corallimorpharia

  15. Order Scleractinia
  16. Family Dendrophyllidae

  17. Order Zoanthidea

  18. Class Hydrozoa
  19. Order Chondrophora
  20. Family Vellelidae

  21. Order Hydroida (Polyps)(Medusae)
  22. Suborder Athecata (Anthomedusae)
  23. Family Hydractiniidae
  24. Family Pandeidae

  25. Family Polyorchidae

  26. Suborder Limnomedusae
  27. Family Olindiasidae

  28. Suborder Thecata (Leptomedusae)
  29. Family Aequoreidae

  30. Family Aglaopheniidae

  31. Family Campanulariidae
  32. Family Mitrocomidae

  33. Class Scyphozoa
  34. Order Semaeostomeae
  35. Family Cyaneidae

  36. Family Pelagiidae

  37. Family Ulmaridae
  38. Order Stauromedusae
  39. Suborder Eleutherocarpida
  40. Family Lucernariidae


Phylum Ctenophora
  • Class Tentaculata
  • Order Cydippida
  • Family Pleurobrachiidae

  • Pleurobrachia bachei: Native here but introduced elsewhere
  • Order Lobata
  • Family Bolinopsidae


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    Phylum Echinodermata
    1. Class Asteroidea
    2. Order Forcipulatida
    3. Suborder Aseriadina
    4. Family Asteriidae
    5. Order Platyasterida
    6. Family Luidiidae

    7. Order Spinulosida
    8. Suborder Eugnathina
    9. Family Pterasteridae

    10. Family Solasteridae
    11. Suborder Leptognathina
    12. Family Echinasteridae
    13. Order Valvatida
    14. Suborder Granulosina
    15. Family Asterinidae

    16. Family Goniasteridae

    17. Family Asteropseidae

    18. Class Crinoidea
    19. Subclass Articulata
    20. Order Comatulida
    21. Family Antedonidae

    22. Class Echinoidea
    23. Subclass Euechinoidea
    24. Order Clypeasteroida
    25. Suborder Scutellina
    26. Family Dendrasteridae

    27. Order Echinoida
    28. Family Strongylocentrotidae
    29. Class Holothuroidea
    30. Order Aspidochirotida
    31. Family Stichopodidae

    32. Order Dendrochirotida
    33. Family Cucumariidae
    34. Family Psolidae
    35. Family Sclerodactylidae

    36. Class Ophiuroidea
    37. Order Ophiurida
    38. Suborder Gnathophiurina
    39. Family Amphiuridae

    40. Family Ophiactidae

    41. Family Ophiocomidae

    42. Suborder Ophiurina
    43. Infraorder Chilophiurina
    44. Family Ophiuridae
    45. Subfamily Ophiurinae

    46. Order Phrynophiurida
    47. Suborder Eurylina
    48. Family Gorgonocephalidae


    Phylum Echiura
    1. Order Echiuroinea
    2. Family Echiuridae

    3. Order Xenopneusta
    4. Family Urechidae




    Phylum Entoprocta
    1. Order Coloniales
    2. Family Barentsiidae

    3. Order Solitaria
    4. Family Loxosomatidae




    Phylum Hemichordata
    Class Enteropneusta
    Family Harrimaniidae




    Phylum Mollusca

    1. Class Bivalvia
    2. Subclass Anomalodesmata
    3. Order Pholadomyoida
    4. Family Lyonsiidae
    5. Subclass Lamellobranchia
    6. Superorder Heterodonta (Eulamellibranchia)
    7. Order Myoida
    8. Suborder Myina
    9. Family Hiatellidae

    10. Family Myidae
    11. Mya arenaria
    12. Suborder Pholadina
    13. Family Pholadidae
    14. Order Veneroida
    15. Family Cardiidae

    16. Family Chamidae

    17. Family Cultellidae

    18. Family Mactridae

    19. Family Montacutidae

    20. Family Petricolidae

    21. Family Psammobiidae:
    22. Nuttallia obscurata
    23. Family Tellinidae
    24. Family Veneridae
    25. Mercenaria mercenaria
    26. Venerupis philippinarum
    27. Superorder Pteriomorpha
    28. Order Mytiloida
    29. Family Mytilidae
    30. Mytilus galloprovincialis
    31. Order Ostreoida
    32. Suborder Pectinina
    33. Family Anomiidae

    34. Family Ostreidae
    35. Crassostrea gigas
    36. Family Pectinidae
    37. Family Propeamussidae
    38. Subclass Protobranchia
    39. Order Nuculoida(Palaeotaxodonta)
    40. Family Yoldiidae
    41. Order Cryptodonta (Solemyoida)
    42. Family Solemyidae

    43. Class Cephalopoda
    44. Subclass Coleoidea
    45. Superorder Decabrachia
    46. Order Sepiolida
    47. Family Sepiolidae
    48. Subfamily Rossinae

    49. Order Teuthida
    50. Family Ommastrephidae
    51. Dosidicus gigas
    52. Superorder Octobrachia
    53. Order Octopoda
    54. Family Octopodidae
    55. Class Gastropoda
    56. Subclass Gymnomorpha
    57. Order Onchidiacea
    58. Family Onchidiaceae

    59. Subclass Opisthobranchia
    60. Order Cephalaspidea
    61. Family Atyidae

    62. Order Notaspidea
    63. Family Pleurobranchiidae

    64. Order Nudibranchia
    65. Suborder Aeolidacea
    66. Superfamily Euolidoidea
    67. Tribe Cleioprocta
    68. Family Aeolididae

    69. Family Facelinidae

    70. Suborder Arminacea
    71. Superfamily Euarminoidea
    72. Family Arminidae

    73. Superfamily Metarminoidea
    74. Family Dironidae
    75. Suborder Dendronotacea
    76. Family Dendronotidae

    77. Family Tritoniidae

    78. Suborder Doridacea
    79. Family Archidorididae
    80. Family Goniodorididae

    81. Superfamily Anadoridoidea
    82. Tribe Non-Suctoria
    83. Family Polyceridae

    84. Superfamily Eudoridoidea
    85. Family Discodorididae
    86. Superfamily Eudoridoidea
    87. Family Cadlinidae

    88. Family Onchidorididae

    89. Family Rostangidae

    90. Order Sacoglossa
    91. Family Elysiidae

    92. Subclass Prosobranchia
    93. Order Archaegastropoda
    94. Suborder Pleurotomariina
    95. Family Fissurellidae
    96. Family Haliotidae
    97. Suborder Trochina
    98. Family Trochidae
    99. Order Mesogastropoda
    100. Suborder Taenioglossa
    101. Family Batillariidae
    102. Batillaria attramentaria
    103. Family Calyptraeidae
    104. Family Capulidae

    105. Family Cerithidiidae

    106. Family Cymatiidae

    107. Family Epitoniidae
    108. Family Hipponicidae

    109. Family Littorinidae
    110.  Subfamily Lacuninae of Family Littorinidae (formerly Family Lacunidae)

    111. Family Naticidae

    112. Family Velutinidae

    113. Order Neogastropoda
    114. Suborder Rachiglossa
    115. Family Buccinidae
    116. Family Columbellidae (Pyrenidae)

    117. Family Muricidae
    118. Family Nassariidae

    119. Family Neptuneidae
    120. Family Nucellidae
    121. Family Olividae

    122. Order Patellogastropoda
    123. Suborder Nacellina
    124. Family Acmaeidae
    125. Family Lottiidae
    126. Subclass Pulmonata
    127. Order Archaepulmonata
    128. Family Ellobiidae
    129. Myosotella myosotis
    130. Class Polyplacophora
    131. Order Neoloricata
    132. Suborder Acanthochitona
    133. Family Acanthochitonidae

    134. Suborder Ischnochitonina
    135. Family Ischnochitonidae
    136. Family Mopaliidae


      1. Class Anopla
      2. Order Heteronemertea
      3. Family Baseodiscidae

      4. Family Lineidae
      5. Order Palaeonemertea
      6. Family Tubulanidae

      7. Class Enopla
      8. Order Hoplonemertea
      9. Suborder Monostilifera
      10. Family Emplectonematidae


      Phylum Platyhelminthes
      1. Class Turbellaria
      2. Order Polycladida
      3. Family Stylochidae


      1. Class Demospongiae
      2. Subclass Ceractinomorpha
      3. Order Halochondriida
      4. Family Myxillidae

      5. Order Haplosclerida
      6. Family Haliclonidae

      7. Order Poecilosclerida
      8. Family Mycalidae

      9. Subclass Tetractinomorpha
      10. Order Axinellida
      11. Family Axinellidae
      12. Order Choristida
      13. Family Geodiidae

      14. Order Hadromerida
      15. Family Suberitidae


      1. Class Sipunculidea
      2. Order Sipunculida
      3. Family Golfingiidae
      4. Family Phascolosomatidae


     
       



    Authors and Editors of Page:
    Dave Cowles (2013):  Created original page
     

    Salish Sea Invertebrates web site provided courtesy of Walla Walla University