Key to Class Stenolaemata: Order Cyclostomata and Class Gymnolaemata: Order Cheilostomata

Cyclostomes, which are in the minority, are indicated by the abbreviation Cycl.  All other species in the key are Cheilostomes.

Phylum Bryozoa

Taken primarily from  Kozloff, 1987, 1996  p. 424 (Copyright 1987, 1996, University of Washington Press.  Used in this web page by permission of University of Washington Press)
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1a Colony erect or recumbent (with leaflike lobes loosely attached to the substratum), but not truly encrusting 2
1b Colony encrusting (but the distal portions of the zooecia may be raised up) 47
2a Colony consisting mostly of stiff, two-layered folds 3
2b Colony not consisting mostly of stiff, two-layered folds 6
3a Most of the frontal of the zooecia with numerous large pores 4
3b Frontal of zooecia with pores only at the margins (a portion of the frontal usually elevated as an umbo, to which ridges extend from the margins; a small avicularium generally present on the slope of the umbo; see also choice 130b) Rhamphostomella costata
4a Avicularia usually present, these interzooecial and large (in some colonies, however, avicularia are absent) (frontal of zooecia in larger colonies with pores arranged in several regular rows; see also choice 65a) Lyrula hippocrepis
4b Avicularia absent 5
5a Ovicells absent; aperture of zooecia with a thin, raised collar and a central sharp tooth inside the proximal margin (see also choice 110a) Cheilopora praelonga
5b Ovicells present, these large, globular, without pores, but with radiating rigs; proximal rim of aperture of zooecia raised into a peaked mound (between the aperture and the mound is an oval depression that could be mistaken for a pore or avicularium; see also choice 115a) Hippodiplosia insculpta
6a Colony recumbent, flexible, attached loosely to the substratum by hairlike projections (the colony may form broad lobes or fingerlike branches) (this choice leads to a few Cheilostomes in which the frontal is not calcified) 7
6b Colony erect (this choice leads to Cyclostomes, some Cheilostomes with a calcified frontal, and some Cheilostomes with a noncalcified frontal) 11
7a
7b
8a
8b
9a
9b
10a
10b
11a Colony a flattened cup attached to the substratum by a narrow stalk and small disk, and with numerous bundles of zooecialtubes (12-20 zooecia per bundle radiating outward from the edge of the cup) Discocytis canadensis
11b Colony branching or lacy in appearance, not cuplike 12
12a Colony a stiff, lacy network (live specimens usually pale orange or salmon-orange) Phidolopora labiata
12b Colony not in the form of a lacy network 13
13a Cheilostomes in which at least half of the frontal of the zooecia is not calcified 14
13b Either Cheilostomes in which most of the frontal of the zooecia is calcified, or Cyclostomes in which the zooecia (generally tubular) are calcified 30
14a Vibracula present on the upper surface of the colony 15
14b Vibracula absent 17
15a
15b
16a
16b
17a Scutum present, curving over the frontal 18
17b Scutum absent 21
18a
18b
19a
19b
20a
20b
21a Colony branching from the upper portion of a long, jointed stalk 22
21b Colony not branching from the upper portion of a long, jointed stalk 24
22a
22b
23a
23b
24a Zooecia small (about 0.4 mm long), attached to one another in pairs, back to back (colony inconspicuous) Synnotum aegyptiacum
24b Zooecia not attached to one another in pairs (if the colony is biserial, the zooecia are more nearly end-to-end than back-to-back) 25
25a Colony multiserial, sometimes partly recumbent; both lateral and frontal avicularia present 26
25b Colony biserial or multiserial, always erect, only lateral avicularia present 27
26a
26b
27a Colony forming spiral whorls (zooecia arranged biserially; avicularia usually of 2 sizes, attached near the middle of the zooecia; ovicells globular Bugula californica
27b Colony not forming spiral whorls 28
28a
28b
29a
29b
30a Colony erect, solid, neither flexible nor jointed 31
30b Colony consisting of calcified units connected by scleroized, flexible joints 38
31a Branches of colony generally cylindrical; apertures of the zooecia distributed more or less evenly around the branches 32
31b Branches somewhat flattened; apertures of the zooecia circular, concentrated on one side of each branch, usually in groups of 4 or 5 (colonies variable; the branches may become attached to the substratum or become fused to form reticulated masses) Diaperoecia californica
32a Zooecia indistinct, embedded within a cylindrical matrix 33
32b Zooecia more or less distinct, flask-shaped, attached to one another for most of their length, but each with a long, tubular, raised peristome (there is a pair of avicularia on the rim of the peristome of at least some zooecia) Lagenipora punctulata
33a Apertures of zooecia distinct and with a proximal, U-shaped sinus; apertures separated from one another by at least the width of one aperture; operculum present; avicularia present 34
33b Apertures of zooecia circular, without a sinus; apertures often tightly packed, raised slightly above or level with the surface of the branch; operculum absent; avicularia absent. 36
34a
34b
35a
35b
36a Branches up to 5 mm in diameter 37
36b Branches about 2 mm in diameter (color light, often yellow or with yellow-tipped branches; branches rarely anastomosing) Heteropora alaskensis
37a Color often gray-purple; branches rarely anastomosing; zooecia protruding only slightly, if at all, above the surface of the colony Heteropora magna
37b Color usually yellow to gray, branches occasionally with pinkish tips; branches frequently anastomosing; peristomes of zooecia sometimes distinctly protruding above the surface of the branches Heteropora pacifica
38a Zooecia somewhat boxlike, embedded in the matrix of the colony, the frontals of the zooecia forming the surface of the colony; aperture approximately semicircular, with an operculum 39
38b Units of the colony formed by tubular zooecia lying against one another and becoming fused; aperture circular, without an operculum (Order Cyclostomata) 41
39a
39b
40a
40b
41a Zooecia arranged in biserial (double) rows 42
41b Zooecia arranged in uniserial (single) rows 45
42a Ooeciostome curved or bent forward 43
42b Ooeciostome straight 44
43a
43b
44a Branches of the colony curved inward or with spikelike projections at their tips; internodes short Crisia occidentalis (Cycl)
44b Branches straight, internodes long Crisia maxima (Cycl)
45a
45b
46a
46b
47a Colony consisting of creeping, adherent, stolon-like zooecia, the distal ends of which rise in erect tubes that have an operculum at the aperture Aetea spp.
47b Colony not stolonlike 48
48a Colony consisting of simple calcified tubes fused together (secondary calcification may obscure the tubes, but portions of them are almost always visible at the surface of the colony); apertures usually circular, without an operculum; with neither avicularia nor spines (in Disporella fembriata, the tubes end in sharp points, but these are not spines) 49
48b Colony not consisting of calcified tubes (zooecia are more complex than simple tubes, and have an aperture on the frontal); aperture variable, but with an operculum; either spines or avicularia, or both, may be present 62
49a Colony uniserial, branching dichotomously at right angles Stomatopora granulata
49b Colony multiserial or massive 50
50a Colony disk-shaped 51
50b Colony not disk-shaped (fanlike colonies may, however, grow outward to the extent that they become almost circular) 54
51a Colony large, up to 10 cm in diameter, complex, composed of subcolonies with 8-12 radially arranged bundles of tubules (color usually deep purple) Disporella separata
51b Colony small, simple, not composed of subcolonies 52
52a Ends of zooecial tubes flaring and ending in 2-5 sharp points; pores on the surface of the colony (not the raised apertures of the zooecial tubes) nearly circular, not so crowded that they nearly touch one another Disporella fimbriata
52b Ends of zooecial tubes neither flaring nor ending in 2 or more sharp points; pores (or calcified porelike structures) on the surface of the colony irregular in form and size, and sometimes so crowded as to nearly touch each other 53
53a  Elevated tubular portions of the zooecia arranged in radiating, uniserial rows, the tubes adhering to one another up to their tips Lichenopora novae-zelandiae
53b Elevated tubular portions of the zooecia not arranged in regular, radiating rows over the entire colony (the tubes in the central portion may be so arranged, however), and not adhering to one another up to their tips Lichenopora verrucaria
54a
54b
55a
55b
56a
56b
57a
57b
58a
58b
59a
59b
60a
60b
61a
61b
62a Pores on the frontal of the zooecia arranged in a series of parallel rows (the pores are formed by incomplete fusion of spines that extend across the zooecia; in some species there are pores on the ovicells but not on the zooecia, so be sure you are looking at zooecia) 63
62b Zooecia with or without pores on the frontal (if pores are present, they are not in distinct rows) 69
63a
63b
64a
64b
65a
65b
66a
66b
67a
67b
68a
68b
69a Less than half of the frontal calcified, leaving a large membranous area either exposed or protected only by spines. 70
69b More than three-fourths of the frontal calcified 89
70a Zooecia without distinct spines (in certain species, however, there are some small spines on the frontal, at least at its distal corners (photo); do not confuse a pointed tooth on the midline with a spine)  71
70b Zooecia with relatively stout spines along the margins (the spines may be absent, however, in some portions of the colony) 77
71a Avicularia absent 72
71b Avicularia present, but these are interzooecial 75
72a Zooecia rectangular 73
72b Zooecia oval 74
73a Zooecia elongate rectangles with thin walls (the margins often slightly serrated); occasionally with hollow spines or knobs at the distal corners (photo) (sclerotized spinules may be present on the frontal, colonies usually encrusting on large algal fronds) Membranipora membranacea
73b Zooecia usually elongate rectangles (but sometimes short and broad), their walls heavily calcified and granular; proximal corners often closed off to form 2 triangular regions that may be membranous or knoblike and that may fuse to form a single knob Conopeum reticulatum
74a
74b
75a
75b
76a
76b
77a Lateral spines branching, resembling miniature antlers, distal spines straight or occasionally bifid 78
77b Spines not branching 79
78a
78b
79a Avicularia stalked, tall, slender, with a narrow base (photo), distributed more or less sparsely among the lateral spines (avicularia are sometimes lacking altogether, however); ovicells either absent or so deeply embedded that they are not evident 80
79b Avicularia not stalked; ovicells prominent 82
80a Zooecia separated by deep or wide grooves 81
80b Zooecia crowded, not separated by grooves Cauloramphus spiniferum
81a With 2 pairs of stout and erect distal spines, the other spines pointed and curved markedly over the membranous frontal (spines usually brown) Cauloramphus
brunea
81b With a pair of distal spines directed forward, the other spines curving slightly over the frontal (all spines slender) Cauloramphus echinus
82a Zooecia with long spines only on the portion distal to the aperture; usually with an avicularium distal to the aperture; ovicells with 1 or 2 small triangular avicularia; membranous portion of the frontal occupying less than two-thirds of the surface 83
82b Zooecia with spines lateral to the aperture; small avicularia interzooecial or close to the lateral or proximal margins of th aperture; avicularia on the ovicells variable, but sometimes large, oblong, pointed; membranous portion of the frontal occupying more than two-thirds of the surface 84
83a Zooecia about 0.7-0.85 mm long; spines straight, extending forward from the distal rim; colony encrusting, but loosely attached Chapperiella
patula
83b Zooecia about 0.6 mm long; most nearly proximal pair of spines curving down over the frontal; colony tightly encrusting on a variety of substrata, including small worm tubes Chapperiella
condylata
84a Frontal entirely membranous 85
84b Frontal with narrow calcified shelf extending inward from the rim 87
85a Only proximal avicularia present, these single or paired 86
85b Both proximal and lateral avicularia present (inner margin of the zooecial rim faintly toothed) Callopora
armata
86a Zooecia separated by wide grooves, the deepest prtions of these with large pores Callopora 
circumclathrata
86b Grooves between zooecia narrow and without pores Callopora horrida
87a
87b
88a
88b
89a Zooecia with pores distributed over most of the frontal (be sure you are looking at the zooecia, not the ovicells, which may have pores when the zooecia do not) 90
89b Zooecia either without pores or with pores in a line around the edge of the frontal 119
90a With an ascopore (a distinct pore on the midline proximal to the aperture; it is the opening to the ascus, a compensation sac beneath the calcified frontal) 91
90b Without an ascopore 97
91a
91b
92a
92b
93a
93b
94a
94b
95a
95b
96a
96b
97a With avicularia 98
97b Without avicularia 110
98a
98b
99a
99b
100a
100b
101a
101b
102a
102b
103a
103b
104a
104b
105a
105b
106a
106b
107a
107b
108a
108b
109a
109b
110a Aperture with a pointed proximal tooth (ovicells absent) Cheilopora praelonga
110b Aperture without a pointed proximal tooth 111
111a With a U-shaped or V-shaped sinus on the proximal rim of the aperture 112
111b Without a U-shaped or V-shaped sinus on the proximal rim of the aperture 115
112a
112b
113a
113b
114a
114b
115a Ovicells without pores, but with conspicuous radial ribs; proximal rim of the aperture raised up in an umbo, a deep transverse depression separating the peak of the umbo from the aperture(colony usually yellow to yellow-brown, growing in double sheets) Hippodiplosia insculpta
115b Ovicells with pores; frontal with neither an umbo nor a depression 116
116a
116b
117a
117b
118a
118b
119a
119b
120a
120b
121a
121b
122a
122b
123a
123b
124a
124b
125a
125b
126a
126b
127a
127b
128a
128b
129a
129b
130a
130b
131a
131b
132a
132b
133a
133b
134a
134b
135a
135b
136a
136b



Taxonomic Levels Represented in this Key:

  Bugula californica
  Callopora horrida
  Cauloramphus spiniferum
  Crisia occidentalis
  Disporella separata
  Heteropora pacifica
  Hippodiplosia insculpta
  Lichenopora novae-zelandiae
  Lichenopora verrucaria
  Membranipora membranacea
 



Page created by Anna Dyer, 7-2002
Edited by Hans Helmstetler  11-2002, Dave Cowles 2005, 2006, 2009