Key:  Order Ctenostomata

Phylum Bryozoa
 Class Gymnolaemata

Taken primarily from  Kozloff, 1987, 1996   p. 439 (Copyright 1987, 1996, University of Washington Press.  Used in this web page by permission of University of Washington Press)
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1a Zooecia connected by creeping stolons (in Immergentia and Penetrantia, the colonies are embedded in calcareous shells of mollusks and barnacles) 2
1b Zooecia united into a fleshy, leathery, or gelatinous mass that is erect or sheetlike 6
2a Colony embedded in a calcareous shell, the apertures of the zooids about flush with the surface Immergentia sp. and Penetrantia sp.
2b Colony not embedded in a calcareous shell 3
3a Zooecia attached to stolons by slender stalks Triticella pedicellata
3b Zooecia attached directly to stolons, without obvious stalks 4
4a Each zooecium expanded at the base, joined to several stolons; gizzard absent (surface covered with a fine layer of silt) Nolella stipulata
4b Each zooecium attached to a single stolon; gizzard present or absent 5
5a Zooecia 0.3-0.5 mm long, the proximal 1/3 of each one adhering to the stolon Buskia nitens
5b Zooecia 1.2-2 mm long, distinct from the stolon for their entire length (gizzard present) Bowerbankia gracilis
6a Colony an erect, club-shaped structure with an annulated stalk Clavopora occidentalis
6b Colony not club-shaped and without an annulated stalk 7
7a Colony generally erect, rarely encrusting, consisting of flattened lobes bearing many forked spines (color pale tan to dark brown) Flustrellidra corniculata
7b Colony erect or encrusting, without spines 8
8a Colony erect, lobed, attached by a short stalk to a basal disk Alcyonidium pedunculatum
8b Colony encrusting, forming a gelatinous coating over the substratum Alcyonidium gelatinosum



Taxonomic Levels Represented in This Key:

  Alcyonidium pedunculatum
  Flustrellida corniculata



Page created by Dave Cowles, 2005