|Callapora horrida collected at Rosario Marine Station, WA|
|Photo by: Anna Dyer, 2002|
How to Distinguish from Similar Species: A microscope and a dichotomous key are needed to positively identify Callopora horrida.
Geographical Range: This species is found from Kodiak Island, Alaska, to California and in Japan Bathymetry.
Depth Range: Found in both intertidal and subtidal zones.
Habitat: Grows on hard substrata such as shells, stones and hard sponges.
Biology/Natural History: No information
on the biology of this particular species is known. The following
information is for Bryozoans in general. The individuals in a colony
are interconnected. Their nervous systems are linked and nutrients
can be passed from autozooids to the non-feeding heterozooids. Most
bryozoans are hermaphroditic with members of each sex within the same colony.
In most species, the embryos are yolky and the larva that develop are non-feeding.
They swim briefly but soon settle, attach to new substratum and metamorphose
into the ancestrula.
In the colony, members can overgrow inferior competitors for space.
The major predators of bryozoans include pycnogonids
but may also be eaten by sea urchins and chitins. Their calcification
makes them unattractive prey. Bryozoans protect themselves chemically
by the formation of secondary compounds, some of which have anti-cancer
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